Sunday, May 5, 2013

“Homeschooling: Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?”

To think that I used to write this essay years ago =.="

Anyway, I hope this is a good thing to be shared and under no circumstances that I intended people to just "plagiarize" what's written there without even reading the original resources as provided. Plus, I don't think the language (i.e. grammar etc) is that good to be copied anyway. Lol. Have fun reading it if you are so happened to be researching about homeschooling at the moment


The fact that there were more than 2.0 million homeschool students in the United States (USA) during the spring of 2008 reflects the idea that homeschooling has gained popularity and has evolved from almost complete ignorance to one of the widespread awareness. However, curiosity and scepticism pertaining to the education that homeschooling children received has lead to misperceptions as homeschooling practice varies where it ranges from highly structured curriculum through to those whose children’s learning occurs mainly at home (Kennedy 2008; Clery 1998). In British, for example the homeschooled children’s educational programs are the responsibility of their parents and are not inspected by the Ministry of Education (British Columbia n.d.). Some countries like Malaysia and some parts of the USA it is compulsory for the parents to notify the school board of their intent to practice homeschooling ( 2008; 2009). 

Questions now arise as people seemed to think homeschool students are isolated from the outside world and are socially handicapped (Romanowski 2001). They also fear that parents of homeschoolers may not have the appropriate skills to teach thus may affect greatly the children’s academic performance (Romanowski 2001; Grubb 1998). Therefore, this has become the root of the research question: 

“Homeschooling: Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?” 

The three important areas of this research are: 
• Background 
• Advantages of homeschooling 
• Disadvantages of homeschooling 

The sources used will be of secondary sources such as academic journals, scholarly articles and research papers. 


The background information of homeschooling is comprises of definitions and historical perspective for better understanding of the issue. 

1.1 Definition
  • Homeschooling is when a child participates in home education rather than attending a public, private, or other type of school (Luffman 1998). 
  • Homeschooling is taking place at home in a family setting with a parent acting as teacher or supervisor where instruction and learning is through planned activity (Lines 1991).
  • Homeschooling is taking place when the children’s educational programs become the responsibility of their parents and is not being inspected by the Ministry of Education (British Columbia n.d.). 

1.2 Historical perspective 

In 1870s, where homeschooling was prevalent throughout North America as there is yet an institutionalized education that provided standardized learning to children (Basham, Merrifield & Hepburn 2007). This movement however was impeded when school attendance and professional educators were compulsory. According to Kennedy (2008) the movement gained renewed attention and interest from parents in 1960s; only this time the movement has divided into two main strains – pedagogues and ideologues. He explains that the pedagogical strain is mainly influenced by John Holt whom believed that the rights of teaching should be given to parents and teachers and not restricted by “standardized” school curriculum as to give higher value on the children’s creativity and critical thinking. The latter was said that parents wanted to impart specific values and beliefs to their children and their efforts were undermined by public schools as they fail to take religion seriously throughout the curriculum. 


There are several advantages of homeschooling. Most importantly is because it allows higher academic achievement for the children. Homeschooling also limits the negative socialization that may arise from attending public schools. Moreover, is it said that positive emotional and spiritual development in the homeschoolers can be developed over time. 

2.1 Homeschooling allows higher academic achievement 

To all intents and purposes it could be said that homeschooling allows for higher academic achievement. The higher success can be related to the flexible schedule of the homeschool children (Grubb 1998). As parents or the homeschoolers themselves can design their own timetable they can focus more on certain subjects that they feel need extra revision and emphasis more on school work to further enhance their level of understanding (Lambert 2007). The data obtained from Basham Merrifield & Hepburn (2007) depicts that the homeschoolers’ overall test score in United States is between the 75th and 85th percentiles which is better than the public schools’ 50th percentile. Other than that, Lambert (2007) correlates the better achievement with better learning environment at homes. She says that the use of computers as a medium to access more information online helps the homeschoolers to gain more information in helping them to understand better about particular subjects. Moreover, the environment offered at home means less distraction and be able to focus and study in more conducive setting as there are no friends or situation that can distract learning session as they are monitored by the parents. 

2.2 Homeschooling limits negative socialization 

Parents’ trepidation over the public schools’ negative influences make them opt for homeschooling. By practising homeschooling they believe their children will be less affected by negative peer influence such as drug abuse, bullies and many more (Basham, Merrifield & Hepburn 2007). At home, the parents act as main role model for the children as they spend most of the time with them, opening opportunity for the parents to supervise the behaviour of their children. Not only that, Grubb (1998) says that children’s safety is the main concern for the parents as they do not want their children to be involved in any act of violation that eventually resulted in fighting or even killings. As the children is less monitored at public schools whether by the teachers or the parents themselves it is not impossible that negative behaviour can develop. Hence, to go for homeschooling is rather a safer choice for the parents to prevent their children from being involved in any kind of inappropriate behaviour problem. 

2.3 Homeschooling promotes positive emotional/spiritual development 

Other than the aforementioned advantages homeschooling also promote positive emotional and spiritual development. In his journal, Ray (2004) states that homeschooling nurture leadership as the homeschoolers have to conduct their own society’s activities without the help from experienced teachers compared to what happened in most of the public schools. The homeschoolers are able to be more independent and relying on their ability to solve problems or tasks given. This in turn teaches the homeschoolers to think more critically especially in making decisions (Lambert 2007). Moreover, homeschooling also promotes higher self-esteem to the children as they have more chance of involvement with society than the public school students do. They also become more mature in terms of thinking as they are fed by numerous information and perspectives of other people when mingling with society. Moore (1986) adds that the maturity has made homeschoolers to be friendlier due to social activities such as church activities that they attended. 


Homeschooling however does come with drawbacks. It is said that homeschoolers lack peer interaction as they spend most of their time at home. Besides that, parent’s qualifications may also be questioned as they might not have appropriate knowledge to teach their children. Also, financial issues may arise from the practise of homeschooling as they are independent from the state government funding. Last but not least, the homeschoolers may find the admission process to apply for college to be difficult. 

3.1 Homeschoolers lack peer interaction or socialization 

Due to the time mostly spend at home rather than at public school the homeschoolers are said to be less socialized with same age peers. To some extent it seems that they do not mingle with each other very often (Montgomery 1989). However, one has to bear in mind that the homeschoolers do socialize but mostly with variety of age groups and not with their same age group. Simmons (1994) mentions that students need to engage in discussions, share ideas, compete, and work with other students to help them confront problems and shaping their manner. However, homeschooled children do not have the opportunity to do so hence it is said that homeschoolers have less opportunity to experience the interaction with their own age group (Montgomery 1989). The reason is simple – the homeschooled spend most of their time interacting with their own parents, siblings and other associated homeschoolers with a range of age that varies. In short, a lack of peer interaction resulted in lesser benefits gained as what other public school students experienced. 

3.2 Parents qualifications may be lacking 

The other concern regarding homeschooling is pertaining to the parent’s qualification to teach. Romanowski (2001) in an article mentions too much freedom under current legislation that not all states in United States require that parents have a high school diploma or general equivalency diploma to homeschool kids. In other words, any parent can practice homeschooling on their children without taking their education levels into consideration. He further explains that the parents may find it difficult to accurately assess, diagnose, and determine the curriculum and instruction as what have been done at public schools. Consequently, they might have trouble in determining the needs of a particular child appropriately in terms of subjects taught at home. 

3.3 Financial issues may surface 

Another drawback of homeschooling is that financial issues may arise. It seems that tax payers gain no benefit in education system as they do not send their children to public schools but at the same time paying taxes on that sector. It will be utterly a waste of money if the parents pay the taxes but not receive any help to enable them to undergo the process of homeschooling from the government. Therefore there should be consideration about exception from paying taxes in that area (Grubb 1998). Another disadvantage is lots of money is actually spent on learning materials (Lambert 2007). On average it is estimated $2500 is spent on a homeschool child as parents have to use up-to-date textbooks, computer equipment, and paying on tutors to supplement teaching certain difficult subjects parent may not be familiar with (Earth’s Magic Inc 2000). For the poorer homeschool families the huge amount of money needed will be a financial burden for them (Romanowski 2001). This is highly reasonable as the parents who homeschooled their children do not gain any help from the state government especially on funding to conduct homeschooling. 

3.4 Difficulty in college admissions process 

A further disadvantage of homeschooling is depicted in the difficulty of the process of college admission. The homeschoolers are often lacking the advantage of a guidance counselor to help them work through the college search and financial aid processes (Mason 2004; Smith 1996). Not only that, they have to go through long procedures when applying for a place in college as it is to ensure the competency level in academic achievement (Ray 2004). Often skepticism further worsen the difficulties of homeschooled as many people have less or no confidence over the credibility to study and succeed when entering colleges. In addition, the need for records of continuous assessments of syllabus studied is highly necessary as homeschooled may not take any test to examine their actual performance (Ray 2004). For homeschoolers who did not have such records they may have to struggle more to obtain any equivalence proofs or statements that validate their excellence and thus enable them to submit their application for higher education. 


From the information gathered, it can be deduced that to practice homeschooling people should consider the purposes and the effects it gives on children. The good things about homeschooling are it allows higher academic achievement for the children, is limiting the negative socialization that may arise from attending public schools and could develop positive emotional and spiritual development. However, homeschooling also comes with its setbacks such as homeschoolers lack peer interaction and parent’s qualifications may not be appropriate to teach their children. Financial issues may also surface from the practice of homeschooling and the homeschoolers may have difficulty in the process of college admission. The need to achieve highest possible achievement in academics persuades parents to search for alternative ways to keep the excellence level of their children at a higher degree. Homeschooling seems to be one of the preferred choices as the advantages it brings satisfy the need. Thus, viewing from the perspective of reasons behind practising homeschooling and the benefits ones may gain it seems that the advantages of homeschooling surpassed the disadvantages in various aspects. 


Clery, E. 1998, ‘Homeschooling: The meaning that the homeschooled child assigns to this experience’, Issues in Educational Research, 8(1), 1-13,

Fraser Institute 2007, Home Schooling: From the Extreme to the Mainstream, 2nd edn, report prepared by Basham P, Merrifield J, Hepburn C.R, Fraser Institute, Vancouver
Hansen, A 2007, ‘Home educating families gather, join groups of peers’, Times-News, Twin Falls, Idah,. Section: Lifestyle, pg.1-4. .

Homeschooling in Malaysia: Legal Issue 2009, Education in Malaysia, viewed 25 August 2009,

How Much Does It Cost To Homeschool A Child? 2000, Earth’s Magic Ink Corp., viewed 9 June 2009, <>

Kennedy, J. G. 1995, ‘Home schooling grows up: Teaching at home moves to the cutting edge of education’, Christianity Today, vol. 39(8), 50.

Lambert, T 2007, Home Schooling: Better Learning and Family Environment, viewed 27 January 2009,

Luffman, J 1998, ‘When Parents Replace Teachers: The Home Schooling Option’, Canadian Social Trends, Statistics Canada cat. no. 11-008-XPE, Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Mid-South Educational Research Association, United State of America 1998, Homeschooling: Who and Why?, report prepared by Grubb D, Morehead State University, Los Angeles.

Montgomery, LR. 1989,’The effect of home schooling on the leadership skills of home schooled students’, Home School Researcher, vol. 5(1),pg. 1-10.

Moore, R. 1986, ‘Research on Sociability’, The Parent Educator and Family Report 4: 1.

Nemer, KM 2002, ‘TOWARD BUILDING A HOMESCHOOLING RESEARCH AGENDA’, Occasional Paper No. 48, Columbia University, United States.

Ontario Ministry of Education 2008, Policy/Program Memorandum No. 131, Ontario, viewed 25 August 2009,

Ray, BD 2004, ‘Homeschoolers on to College: What Research Shows Us’, The Journal Of College Admission, Fall 2004, pp. 5-11.

Romanowski M 2001, “Common Arguments About the Strengths and Limitations of Home Schooling.” Clearing House 75.2 (2001). 79, viewed 31 March 2009, .

Rudner, LM 1998, ‘Scholastic Achievement and Demographic Characteristics
of Home School Students in 1998’, Education Policy Analysis Archives, vol. 7, no. 8.

Simmons, B. J. 1994, ‘Classroom at home’, American School Board Journal, vol.181 (2), pg. 47–49.

Smith, D. 1996, ‘Parent-generated home study in Canada’, The Canadian School Executive, 15(8), pg. 9-12.

Saturday, September 11, 2010

harapan itu hanya sesegar anganan semalam..

pilu apabila tersentak daripada lamunan yang mengaburi mata hati ini. bukan suka untuk kembali menyedari hakikat hidup yang tidak selalu indah. tidak juga aku benci sehingga menolak kebenaran hakikat yang terbentang jelas di hadapan. biasa sahaja -- untuk sesudah terhantuk baru hendak mengadah. norma hidup.

sudah bergenang air mata ini. tidak juga mengalir bagi menghilangkan sebak di dada. aku sedih ? boleh jadi, tetapi merasakan perasaan kecewa itu lebih kuat. hendak kutangisi terasa tiada gunanya, bukan boleh dibetulkan semula.

harapan kali ini mudah -- semoga tidak aku lupa betapa pilu hati ini, agar aku menjadi lebih bersyukur untuk segalanya. sungguh, harapan yang dahulu itu juga sudah hanyut entah di bawa ke mana-mana. kali ini, biarlah tetap segar dalam ingatn.

Monday, October 12, 2009

one down..and many to go?

i have a strong feeling that i have done the same mistake over the past few years again.. can i be so blind that i dumbfully be the person that i promised not to be?
hmm..things had happened anyway..and that's that i guess..
sorry seems that really-annoying-and-stupid old habit never really ceased or fell apart from me..
it looks like i have to search for the next only-God-and-i-know-what-it-is as i should give up on the fallen one..

note to myself:
1. no pushy2
2. no dumb-ish attitude
3. just listen and nod
4. etc?

p/s aku hanya insan biasa

Friday, October 9, 2009

bkn aku~

Saya ada kawan.
Sudah lama saya kenal dia.
Dari kecil hingga dia dewasa.
Dari awal dan mula-mula.

Selalunya dia gembira bila jumpa saya.
Tetapi kadang-kadang mukanya agak masam juga.
Masalah juga mungkin bertimpa-timpa
Mungkin dia sudah dewasa.

Ramai yang gemarkannya.
Muka comel sentiasa.
OHh Gardenia Sungguh Enak Dimakan Begitu Saja..Ehh tersasul.

Tapi selama mana kita kawan.
Itupun jadi tanda tanya juga.
Sampai esokkah?sampai lusakah?sampai syurga ku tunggu mu ehh silap ternyanyi pulak

Tapi sekarang dia tengah buat apa pon saya tak tahu.
Tengah sehatkah, saketkah,gemokah, kuruskah.
Saya tak tahu tambahan pula dia pun tak pernah nak beritahu.

Mungkin dia ada kawan baru.
Yang baru-baru selalunya best dari yang dahulu-dahulu.
Tapi saya macam biasa saja.
Selalu saja ada tak kira waktu.

Saya terpikir sesuatu dalam bahasa inggeris

If the distance determine everything , there will be no good for sure.
(Jangan apply dalam fizik)

p/s credit goes to bob [whoever u r..]

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

Brainstewz – Loser Anthem/Twinkle Away

Jauh minda ku melayang
Terkenangkan dirimu sayang
Kau pergi.. Ku sendiri..
Kini kau kembali

Terpaku melihat wajahmu
Wajahmu melodrama hati ku
Kau putuskan untuk pergi dulu
Terganggu siaran radio ku

Ku tepis melodi hati ku
Yang hadir setiap waktu
Ku benci ilusi darimu
Kau diam membisu

Jangan biar diri sendiri lagi
Oh kasih.. dengarlah rayuan ku ini
Kasih ku terhadap dirimu kasih ku
Bintang-bintang di angkasa

Huu.. huu.. huu..

Tidakkah kau tahu isi hati ku
Usahlah tinggalkan aku seperti dahulu
Jangan biar diri sendiri lagi
Oh kasih..
Dengarlah rayuan ku ini
Kasih ku terhadap dirimu kasih ku
Twinkle twinkle away..
Twinkle away..

p/s bukan diriku..hmm~